Referencing is essential to any academic writing and is actively used by academic writers and students in colleges and schools. Academic writing requires reading different books and journals to increase their knowledge. As a result, the writers need to cite the names of the sources as it helps increase the accountability and credibility of the information provided by the researcher in the research study. Academic reading is also considered vital as it helps highlight the gaps in the literature. Harvard and APA styles are among the most frequent referencing methods used by the students in the UK and in different parts of the world. These two referencing styles are very much different from each other in the way in which they are used in the dissertation. One of the significant differences between the APA and Harvard referencing styles is that the APA style is widely used in behavioural, educational, and social science-related topics in academic work. On the other hand, the Harvard referencing style is used in different types of academic scientific writing.
The format of the APA referencing style was introduced in the year 1929 by the American Psychological Association. The style is widely used in behavioural, educational, and social science. APA referencing is made in both the body of the text, known as in-text citation, and a separate list arranged in alphabetical order at the end of the subject matter. The APA referencing guide helps explain the different methods for citing sources, such as books, journals, preceding conferences, and websites.
There needs to be clarity regarding the formation of Harvard referencing. Different sources provide different founders responsible for the development of Havard referencing. As per some sources, the Harvard referencing was developed by zoologist "Edward Lawrence Mark." The Harvard referencing style is mainly used by Harvard University, from which the style got its name. As in the case of APA, Harvard referencing is also done in the form of in-text citations and separately in the reference list. Harvard referencing is generally used in citing the different sources used in scientific writing.
One of the significant differences between APA and Harvard referencing is that the APA referencing system uses the author/page number/date system, and Harvard referencing uses the author/date system. In the case of the Harvard referencing system, in-text citation in the body includes the author's name and the year of publication. For instance, (John, 2019). The in-text citations are again referenced on separate pages at the end of the text in alphabetical order. However, in the case of APA referencing, the in-text citation in the body of the text includes the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number. The format of in-text citation is provided in the following example. (John, 2019, pg 15). A reference list is also required at the end of the main body, which provides the full details of the source, providing information such as page number and title in alphabetical order. Both APA and Harvard referencing have their separate style guides. In the case of APA referencing, it follows the APA 7th edition, and in the case of Harvard referencing, it follows the Harvard referencing style guide. It is considered helpful for the students to use Harvard or APA referencing generators or take the help of referencing websites to provide correct and accurate citations in the academic work prepared by the students.
Entries in the reference list of APA and Harvard-style
One of the significant differences when comparing APA and Harvard is the difference in citing the source and referencing the sources in the paper. In the case of Harvard referencing, it is crucial to place the references in alphabetical order along with the page numbers. However, in the case of APA referencing, including the author's name in the reference list is also essential. Another difference in the APA and Harvard referencing styles is how the literature is cited in different referencing methods and the referencing required at the end of the text in both APA and Harvard referencing. Various online websites help convert one reference style to another freely and efficiently for the students.
How the page numbers are cited in the Harvard and APA referencing is also a significant difference between the Harvard and APA referencing style used in academic studies. Regarding Harvard referencing, page numbers are only required when citing a direct quote in the text. However, page numbers are required during in text referencing in the case of APA referencing. Another significant difference between the APA and Harvard referencing is in the bibliography order, formatting the name of the authors, and using italics during in-text referencing in APA style. Harvard referencing also helps prove an option for referencing personal communication, Which is not present in the APA referencing style.
The citation style present in APA is updated every seven years. In the case of Harvard referencing, it always remains the same. For instance, the Harvard referencing style has been the same for many years, although the APA referencing style is updated in the 7th edition, published in 2019. Using different types of citation tools is very helpful for the students to follow the updated and correct referencing style in the text. For instance, the websites providing referencing generators can provide options such as APA referencing generator, APA referencing guide, Harvard referencing style, and Harvard referencing generator.
The referencing tool used in the APA referencing style is the APA referencing guide, updated regularly every seven years. In the case of Harvard referencing, referencing tools include Harvard referencing generators and other third-party websites, which help in formatting and generating references for the text.
The significant difference in the Harvard and APA reference styles is the amount of details provided and the names of authors in the text. The APA style provides more information when compared to the Harvard reference regarding the source of information used in the text. Knowing the significant differences in the different referencing styles helps provide the correct citation in the paper prepared by the student.