The digestive system interacts with nutritional elements, which are present in the body. Digestive enzymes play a vital role in dissolving protein, carbohydrates, and lipids. The breakdown of these essential materials and disorders can be solved using enzymes. Moreover, enzymes are used for controlling disorders from lactose intolerance to celiac disease.
Enzymes are essential for the pharmaceutical supplement industry's development and its growth. Lactase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds with disaccharide lactose and releases glucose and galactose. This reaction is responsible for the improvement of products involved in humans' digestive systems, for example, dairy products. The growth of industrial material and its improvement is dependent on the reaction of enzymes and their catalyzing power. Catalysis is one of the processes that increase the rate of reaction in any case. According to Szilagyi & Ishayek (2018), there are several enzymes used for treating digestive disorders. Breakdown of sugar from starch is catalyzed by amylase and carbohydrate. Protease is used for digesting and breaking down protein into amino acids. Lipid turns into fatty acids and glycerol by lipase enzymes in the body. Lactose intolerance is a disorder where people cannot digest lactose, which is present in milk products. An individual can experience these signs and symptoms by consuming dairy products, which can be solved by using digestive enzymes supplements such as lactase powder (Meghwanshi et al., 2020).
Celiac disease and lactose intolerance are digestive problems generated by taking gluten and dairy products, respectively. In case of lactose intolerance, patients cannot produce adequate amounts of lactase enzymes responsible for the digestion of milk sugar lactose. That is why; pharmaceutical industry offers lactase supplements, for example, lactase powder and milk fortified with lactase. These supplements help with breaking down lactose into monomers such as galactose and glucose.
Because of lactase supplements, people with lactose intolerance can effectively digest lactose and prevent gas, diarrhea, and bloating issues. Regarding celiac disease, patients are hypersensitive towards gluten, and that leads to digestion issues. Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) has been used as a pharmaceutical supplement for the detoxification of gluten, an oral enzyme supplement to mitigate lactose intolerance (Moreno Amador et al., 2019). This enzyme supplement is used to break down gluten proteins into peptides. These two enzymes are highly efficient in preventing celiac and lactose intolerance issues.
Before utilizing enzymes, people can consider other pharmaceutical supplements for treating celiac and lactose intolerance issues. For example, regarding lactose intolerance, people can consider lactose-free items such as lactose-free yogurts and milk as well as probiotics before consuming enzyme supplements. Additionally, in the case of celiac patients, research has suggested that they can consume gluten-free food items so that they do not require taking PEP to break down gluten into peptides. Therefore, people can take multivitamins and start to incorporate food items that have calcium, zinc, magnesium, vitamin B-complex, D, pseudo-gluten, and gluten-free cereals into the diet of celiac patients (Rai et al., 2018).
The use of digestive enzymes can be cured, but the permanent treatment of these disorders is not possible by using this medicine. According to Heine et al. (2017), EPI (Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency) is a life-threatening risk that is related to several problems. Hence, intake of medicine is essential for everyone, but there are some risks associated with patients. Metabolism of enzymes is a biological process, so it is very important for the survival of all living organisms, but some enzyme supplements have allergic reactions in the human body; for example, lactase tablets may cause rashes and severe dizziness.
Robles & Priefer (2020) have suggested that the harmful effects of enzyme use may cause major problems in human health that can be mitigated by imposing rules in society. However, evidence has found that enzyme supplements (probiotics and fermented food) used for treating digestive system disorders can effectively increase the number of specific enzymes, such as lactase, regarding lactose intolerance (Ibrahim et a., 2021). That is why they do not experience bloating, constipation, and malnutrition issues, which hugely positively impact society.
Bio-application of the pharmaceutical industry has several impacts on society, and in the case of celiac and lactose intolerance issues, they offer effective enzyme supplement solutions that do not harm people (Facioni, 2020). However, since celiac patients lack multivitamins because of consuming gluten-free food products, they can come up with effective solutions that will be beneficial for society.
Enzymes used as pharmaceutical supplements to treat digestive system disorders such as celiac disease and lactose intolerance are essential for human beings. There are several enzymes (lactase and PEP) available in the market to treat digestive disorders. Moreover, it is necessary to focus on the impact of digestive drugs that are produced in the pharmaceutical industry.