Home Samples An Investigation Into Blockchain and Its Application to Internet of Vehicles


Main components of internet of vehicles

Intelligent autonomous vehicles have onboard computer technology, which is known as Blockchain technology. It is very advantageous because of the shorter reaction time, precise control and better sensors [3]. The main components on the internet of vehicles to avail these facilities are vehicle, personal device, a sensing device, network infrastructure, roadside device and, skilled person.

Communication between components

The internet of vehicles includes other nearby vehicles to establish the communication link in order to exchange information regarding traffic alerts, stoplights, avoiding a collision. It facilitated crash avoidance with wireless networks where huge data storage is the primary requirement. Connected cars need a huge amount of data that is shared with the help of the cloud [4]. The vehicle- vehicles (V2V) communication is done by cloud storage with excellent procession power. Cloud has analytical and processing capabilities, and this is used to communicate with the components.

Attack scenarios in such distributed systems

The attack scenarios in the distributed system may include the denial of service attack or the DoS. It floods the processing system with huge amounts of information and overloads it to prevent the system from receiving the required information. It may also include the black hole attacks where the attacker creates a hole to block the information processing system.  The attack scenarios also include replay attacks where the data transmission is delayed or repeated [5]. Another attack scenario that may happen is the Sybil attacks, which influence the network with pseudonymous identities.

Byzantine agreement protocols for distributed systems

The Byzantine agreement protocols include parties to agree on some values in a distributed environment even if they are corrupted. The protocols include the validity where the parties must have some initial values [1]. Agreement of Byzantine protocols includes the agreement of the parties who must be inclined to the values. Another strategy includes probabilistic termination, including the non-corrupted parties who can specify the values.

Achievement and remaining gaps

The achievement of the Byzantine protocols includes the cryptocurrency to reach an agreement on the particular blocks. It works as a safeguard against faulty nodes and malicious attacks and prevents the system from repeating, overloading or delaying the distribution system. The remaining gaps in the Byzantine protocols include the interactive consistency problem and the consensus problem.


The working method of Blockchain technology

Blockchain technology helps in the supply chain management of automotive cars regarding the delivery, replacement, stolen and damaged parts of the car. Blockchain carries huge information regarding the origin of the car parts and thus helps in the modification of it. Blockchain technology is advantageous to the manufacturing process of the car by providing quality inspection records. Blockchain technology accelerates the manual data insertion process, including transactions and the revision of the data [1]. Blockchain technology ensures the data security of automotive vehicles and vehicle safety. Since the cars are automotive and have to connect with the other cars, there is a high chance of cyberattacks. The strong cryptographic roots of Blockchain technology store data with security where reverse engineering or hacking is not possible. Blockchain technology helps in navigation, which is software-based to enable vehicle-to-vehicle communication.

Blockchain ensuring the security

Blockchain technology ensures security by protecting the huge amount of data in a secure decentralized network. The transparent data documentation of the Blockchain technology is known as black box cars from accidents. It has an easier verification system that is loaded in the data history of the car, which ensures the car users from any kind of cyberattacks. Hence, Blockchain technology ensures data security and thus resolves the issues of reselling the car. Blockchain technology has a secure digital identity that can be accessed by car users, only preventing the driver from denial of service or Sybil attack [2]. Besides that, it secures the car and the river from accidents by providing required alerts and reduces the accident rates. Blockchain technology also facilitates a traceable, secure and transparent digital transaction process in a real-time platform, decreasing the risk of traditional financial issues. It cuts the extra cost and increases efficiency by enabling the security of the data and an easier transaction process.

Blockchain ensuring non-repudiation

Blockchain technology ensures non-repudiation enabling services to collect, provide, maintain and verify the evidence about the messages. Non-repudiation service may include a trusted third party which is known as the delivery authority. The blockchain technology in non-repudiation allows the message to be delivered from the transmitter to the receiver, which cannot be denied once it is sent. It enables the digital signature by using asymmetric encryption techniques, which allows the elliptic curve equations [6]. For instance, when a digital signature for Bitcoin is received by using the modular arithmetic and elliptic curve equations in the finite fields, it allows the non-repudiation.


Blockchain technology reducing and eliminating malicious users

Blockchain technology can reduce malicious attacks in two ways which are the double-spending method and the record hacking method. Double spending happens when a single funding body uses more than one payment, for example, Bitcoins. This happens when the network broadcast uses several nodes receiving unconfirmed transactions at different times. Blockchain technology solves this complexity of malicious users by enabling miner nodes which are known as mining [8]. The mining process helps to verify the data regarding transactions by using its excellent processing power. The mathematical problems are inserted into the system, and only the blocks with the correct mathematical solution can be added to the technological platform of Blockchain. Only one payment would be registered and accepted, and thus blockchain technology eliminates the double-spend funds and the malicious users.

The centralized storage of management systems and data are susceptible to intrusion, braces and hacking. The vars have to communicate with other cars on the internet of vehicles where huge information is required. It increases the risk of data overloading, and cyber-attacks and blockchain technology helps to mitigate the risk in the automotive industry. The miners verify every transaction and information, and unable the fraudulent transactions pass collective validation or verification. Even if any malicious user wants to hack the system, blockchain technology records its information and provides a reliable backup of the hacked version.

Limitations of Blockchain applied for the Internet of Vehicles

Blockchain technology is dependent on the participation and involvement of the nodes, which is not a distributed computing system. For example, Bitcoin has enabled the strong nodes to participate in the network, which may not be true for other blockchain networks.

Blockchain technology is not scalable as part of their centralized system network. It may increase the risk of network congestion where several nodes can participate, and it may slow down the process. In automotive cars, data sharing is very important, and thus data congestion might become a serious risk in order to share required information [7]. Automotive cars depend upon the shared data, and this may increase the risk of data mishandling of the driver.

Some blockchain solutions consume a massive amount of energy. In order to reduce the malicious attacks, the miners have to include complex mathematical problems. Every time a new transaction occurs, the miners need to update the information, and they have to solve the problems which consume a lot of energy.

Possible solutions to solve limitations

Blockchain technology should ensure a distributed computing system where the nodes must be strong to prevent the users from any kind of malicious attacks. The nodes must verify the authentication of the data, and the transaction process must be secure [9]. Every blockchain technology user should enable the nodes that should be as strong as Bitcoin’s to become beneficial for the corporation.

Blockchain technology must include permissible nodes in their networks only to solve the issues regarding scalability. If the permissible network can only enter into the network, it will make the process faster and may reduce the risk of data congestion.

Blockchain technology should include consensus algorithms to solve the issues of energy consumption. The nodes should be limited, which can also solve the issues regarding high energy consumption, and the stem should be auto-updated.


It has been concluded from the above that blockchain technology is used in automotive cars, and it is very advantageous. The internet of vehicles applying blockchain technology has the facility of the vehicle to vehicle communication. These enable car users to have a huge amount of required data, such as traffic alerts, weather reports, and accidental collisions. In order to share these data, huge cloud storage is required, which can make the process easier. Data sharing may increase the risk of cyber-attacks, and hacking and blockchain technology can solve these issues with excellent verification methods. Blockchain technology can enable high security, and thus it can protect the data. It can protect the data from malicious users by applying the centralizing network and double-fund method. Even blockchain technology provides reliable backups to protect the networks from the third party, Bitcoin intricate the blockchain technology fist with its strong network and nodes. However, there are some limitations regarding the immutability of the shared data and congestion of the network. These issues can be resolved with an updated and automated version of blockchain technology.


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